fighting the lack of good ideas

basic dockerized jitsi deployment with an apache reverse proxy on centos

After a friend of mine told me he wanted to deploy Jitsi on my main webserver, and me saying “sure”, I decided I wanted to get it up and running on a new server both so I knew how to do it, and to avoid the latency issues of videoconferencing from central North America to Germany and back.

Before I go into how I got it working, let me say that the official Quick Start guide is good – but it doesn’t cover anything but itself.

Here’s the basic setup:

What To Do:

Once you have your new CentOS instance up and running (I used Vultr), here’s everything you need to install:

yum -y install epel-release && yum -y upgrade && yum -y install httpd docker docker-compose screen bind-utils certbot git haveged net-tools mod_ssl

I also installed a few other things, but that’s because I’m multi-purposing this server for Squid, and other things, too.

Enable Apache, firewalld, & Docker:

systemctl enable httpd && systemctl enable docker && systemctl enable firewalld

Now get your swap space setup:

fallocate -l 4G /swapfile && chmod 0600 /swapfile && mkswap /swapfile && swapon /swapfile

Add the following line to the bottom of your /etc/fstab:

/swapfile swap swap default 0 0

Restart your VPS:

shutdown -r now

Get your cert from Let’s Encrypt (make sure you’ve already setup appropriate CAA & A records for your domain and any subdomains you want to use):

certbot -t -n --agree-tos --keep --expand --standalone certonly --must-staple --rsa-key-size 4096 --preferred-challenges dns-01,http-01 -m <user>@<domain.tld> -d <jitsi.yourdomain.tld>

Create a root crontab entry to run certbot frequently (I do @weekly ~/

Go to the home directory of whatever user you plan to run Jitsi as:

su - <jitsi-user>

Begin the Quick Start directions:

  • git clone && cd docker-jitsi-meet
  • mv env.example .env
  • Change the timezone in .env from Europe/Amsterdam if you want it to show up in a sane timezone (like Etc/UTC)
  • mkdir -p ~/.jitsi-meet-cfg/{web/letsencrypt,transcripts,prosody,jicofo,jvb}
  • docker-compose up -d

Now configure Apache for SSL. Start with this reference I posted.

But in the [sub]domain-specific conf file z-[sub]domain-tld.conf, add proxy and authentication lines (so that only people you allow to use your video conference can actually use it):

ProxyPreserveHost on
ProxyPass / http://localhost:8000/ nocanon
ProxyPassReverse / http://localhost:8000/
ProxyRequests       off
AllowEncodedSlashes NoDecode
<Proxy http://localhost:8000/*>
    Order deny,allow
    Allow from all
    Authtype Basic
    Authname "Password Required"
    AuthUserFile /etc/httpd/.htpasswd
    Require valid-user
RewriteEngine       on
RewriteRule        ^/meetwith/(.*)$ http://%{HTTP_HOST}/$1 [P]
ProxyPassReverseCookiePath /meetwith /

Reload your configs, and make sure they’re happy, fixing any errors that may exist:

apachectl graceful

Setup at least one user who’ll be able to access the site:

htpasswd -B -c /etc/httpd/.htpasswd <user>

You should also configure firewalld to allow only what you want (http, https, ssh):

firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-service=http && firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-service=https && firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-service=ssh

With any luck, when you now navigate to https://[sub.]domain.tld in your web browser, and enter your username and password you created with htpasswd, you’ll get the Jitsi welcome page!

Other Resources:

ssl configuration for apache 2.4 on centos 7 with let’s encrypt

In follow-up to previous posts I’ve had about SSL (specifically with Let’s Encrypt), here is the set of SSL configurations I use with all my sites. These, if used correctly, should score you an “A+” with no warnings from Note: I have an improved entropy package installed (twuewand). This is adapted from the Mozilla config generator with specific options added for individual sites and/or to match Let’s Encrypt’s recommendations.

Please note: you will need to modify the config files to represent your own domains, if you choose to use these as models.


#SSL options for all sites
Listen 443
SSLPassPhraseDialog  builtin
SSLSessionCache         shmcb:/var/cache/mod_ssl/scache(512000)
SSLSessionCacheTimeout  300
Mutex sysvsem default
SSLRandomSeed startup builtin
SSLRandomSeed startup file:/dev/urandom  1024
# requires twuewand to be installed
SSLRandomSeed startup exec:/bin/twuewand 64
SSLRandomSeed connect builtin
SSLRandomSeed connect file:/dev/urandom 1024
SSLCryptoDevice builtin
# the SSLSessionTickets directive should work - but on Apache 2.4.6-45, it does not
#SSLSessionTickets       off
SSLCompression          off
SSLHonorCipherOrder	on
# there may be an unusual use case for enabling TLS v1.1 or 1 - but I don't know what that would be
SSLProtocol all -SSLv2 -SSLv3 -TLSv1 -TLSv1.1
SSLOptions +StrictRequire
SSLUseStapling on
SSLStaplingResponderTimeout 5
SSLStaplingReturnResponderErrors off
SSLStaplingCache        shmcb:/var/run/ocsp(128000)

#all unknown requests get domain.tld (over http)
<VirtualHost *:80>
    DocumentRoot /var/html
    ServerName domain.tld
    ServerAlias domain.tld *.domain.tld
    ErrorLog logs/domain-error_log
    CustomLog logs/domain-access_log combined
    ServerAdmin user@domain.tld
    <Directory "/var/html">
         Options All +Indexes +FollowSymLinks
         AllowOverride All
         Order allow,deny
         Allow from all

SetOutputFilter DEFLATE
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/html text/plain text/xml text/javascript text/css text/php


<Virtualhost *:80>
    ServerName domain.tld
# could use * instead of www if you don't use subdomains for anything special/separate
    ServerAlias domain.tld www.domain.tld
    Redirect permanent / https://domain.tld/

<VirtualHost *:443>
    SSLCertificateFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/domain.tld/cert.pem
    SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/domain.tld/privkey.pem
# if you put "fullchain.pem" here, you will get an error from ssllabs
    SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/domain.tld/chain.pem
    DocumentRoot /var/www/domain
    ServerName domain.tld
    ErrorLog logs/domain-error_log
    CustomLog logs/domain-access_log \
          "%t %h %{SSL_PROTOCOL}x %{SSL_CIPHER}x \"%r\" %b"
    ServerAdmin user@domain.tld

# could put this in defaults.conf - I prefer it in each site config
    SSLEngine on

<Files ~ "\.(cgi|shtml|phtml|php3?)$">
    SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
<Directory "/var/www/cgi-bin">
    SSLOptions +StdEnvVars

SetEnvIf User-Agent ".*MSIE.*" \
         nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
         downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0

    <Directory "/var/www/domain">
         Options All +Indexes +FollowSymLinks
         AllowOverride All
         Order allow,deny
         Allow from all


I use the z....conf formatting to ensure all site-specific configs are loaded after everything else. That conveniently breaks every site into its own config file, too.

The config file for a non-https site is much simpler:

<VirtualHost *:80>
    DocumentRoot /var/www/domain
    ServerName domain.tld
    ServerAlias domain.tld *.domain.tld
    ErrorLog logs/domain-error_log
    CustomLog logs/domain-access_log combined
    ServerAdmin user@domain.tld
    <Directory "/var/www/domain">
         Options All +Indexes +FollowSymLinks
         AllowOverride All
         Order allow,deny
         Allow from all

If you’re running something like Nextcloud, you may want to turn on Header always set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15552000; includeSubDomains" in the <VirtualHost&gt directive for the site. I haven’t decided yet if I should put this in every SSL-enabled site’s configs or not.

turn on spf filtering with postfix and centos 7

After running my new server for a while, I was noticing an unusually-high level of bogus email arriving in my inbox – mail that was being spoofed to look like it was coming from myself (to myself).

After a great deal of research, I learned there is a component of the DNS specification that allows for TEXT or SPF records. Sender Policy Framework was developed to help mail servers identify whether or not messages are being sent by authorized servers for their representative domains.

While there is a huge amount of stuff that could be added into a SPF record, what I am using for my domains is:

"v=spf1 mx -all"

Note: some DNS providers (like Digital Ocean) will make you use a TEXT record instead of a dedicated SPF record (which my registrar / DNS provider Pairnic supports).

If they require it be via TEXT record, it’ll look something like this: TXT @ "v=spf1 a ~all"

Starting with this old how-to I found for CentOS 6, I added the policy daemon for Postfix (though it’s now in Python and not Perl) thusly:

yum install pypolicyd-spf

(I already had the EPEL yum repository installed – to get it setup, follow their directions, found here.)

Then I edited the config file for Postfix, adding the following at the bottom:

policy unix - n n - 0 spawn user=nobody argv=/bin/python /usr/libexec/postfix/policyd-spf

Note: those are actually tabs in my config file – but spaces work, too.

When you’re done with your edits and record additions, restart Postfix:

systemctl restart postfix

Then you’ll see messages like this in your /var/log/maillog file:

Apr 23 18:58:59 khopesh postfix/smtpd[18199]: NOQUEUE: reject: RCPT from unknown[]: 550 5.7.1 <>: Recipient address rejected: Message rejected due to: SPF fail - not authorized. Please see;;ip=;; from=<> to=<> proto=ESMTP helo=<[]>

And if you follow the directive to go visit the “Why” page on OpenSPF, you’ll see something like this explanation:

Why did SPF cause my mail to be rejected?

What is SPF?

SPF is an extension to Internet e-mail. It prevents unauthorized people from forging your e-mail address (see the introduction). But for it to work, your own or your e-mail service provider’s setup may need to be adjusted. Otherwise, the system may mistake you for an unauthorized sender.

Note that there is no central institution that enforces SPF. If a message of yours gets blocked due to SPF, this is because (1) your domain has declared an SPF policy that forbids you to send through the mail server through which you sent the message, and (2) the recipient’s mail server detected this and blocked the message. rejected a message that claimed an envelope sender address of received a message from that claimed an envelope sender address of

However, the domain has declared using SPF that it does not send mail through That is why the message was rejected.

putting owncloud 8 on a subdomain instead of a subdirectory on centos 7

After moving to a new server, I wanted to finally get ownCloud up and running (over SSL, of course) on it.

And I like subdomains for different services, so I wanted to put it at sub.domain.tld. This turns out to be not as straight-forward as one might otherwise hope, sadly – ownCloud expects to be installed to domain.tld/owncloud (and plops itself into /var/www/owncloud by default (or sometimes /var/www/html/owncloud).

My server is running CentOS 7, Apache 2.4, and MariaDB (a drop-in replacement for MySQL). This overview is going to presume you’re running the same configuration – feel free to spin one up quickly at Digital Ocean to try this yourself.

Start with the ownCloud installation instructions, which will point you to the openSUSE build service page, where you’ll follow the steps to add the ownCloud community repo to your yum repo list, and install ownCloud. (In my last how-to, 8.0 was current – 8.2 rolled-out since I installed 8.1 a couple days ago.)

Here is where you need to go “off the reservation” to get it ready to actually install.

Add a VirtualHost directive to redirect http://sub.domain.tld to https://sub.domain.tld (cipher suite list compiled thusly):

<VirtualHost *:80>
ServerName sub.domain.tld
Redirect permanent / https://sub.domain.tld/

Configure an SSL VirtualHost directive to listen for sub.domain.tld:

<VirtualHost *:443>
SSLCertificateFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/sub.domain.tld/cert.pem
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/sub.domain.tld/privkey.pem
SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/sub.domain.tld/fullchain.pem
DocumentRoot /var/www/subdomain
ServerName sub.domain.tld
ErrorLog logs/subdomain-error_log
CustomLog logs/subdomain-access_log "%t %h %{SSL_PROTOCOL}x %{SSL_CIPHER}x \"%r\" %b"
ServerAdmin user@domain.tld
SSLEngine on
SSLProtocol all -SSLv2 -SSLv3
SSLHonorCipherOrder on
SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
<Directory "/var/www/cgi-bin">
SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
SetEnvIf User-Agent ".*MSIE.*" nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0
# allow .htaccess to change things
<Directory "/var/www/subdomain">
Options All +Indexes +FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride All
Order allow,deny
Allow from all

Comment-out every line in (or remove) /etc/httpd/conf.d/owncloud.conf.

Move /var/www/html/owncloud/* to /var/www/subdomain.

Make sure permissions are correct on /var/www/subdomain:

  • chown -R :apache /var/www/subdomain

Run the command-line installer: /var/www/subdomain/occ maintenance:install

Fix ownership of the config file, /var/www/subdomain/config/config.php to root:apache.

In config.php,

  • change trusted domains from ‘localhost‘ to ‘sub.domain.tld
  • make sure ‘datadirectory‘ is equal to /var/www/subdomain/data
  • change ‘overwrite.cli.url‘ from ‘localhost‘ to ‘https://sub.domain.tld

Navigate to http://sub.domain.tld, and follow the prompts – and you should be a happy camper.

automated let’s encrypt ssl certificate renewal on centos 7

In my how-to for Let’s Encrypt, I gave an example script that can be called via cron (or manually) which will renew Let’s Encrypt SSL certificates under CentOS 6.

If you want to do it on CentOS 7 (which is what I am now running), use the following:

cd ~/letsencrypt
git pull
systemctl stop httpd.service
~/letsencrypt/letsencrypt-auto --agree-tos --keep --rsa-key-size 2048 --standalone certonly -m user@domain.tld -d domain.tld [-d sub.domain.tld [-d ...]]
systemctl start httpd.service

Now, what does this script do? Step by step:

  1. clear-out the last grab of the Let’s Encrypt git repo (there’s probably a better way to do this, but I don’t know what it is)
  2. go to root’s home (/root)
  3. clone-down the Let’s Encrypt toolset
  4. stop httpd (Apache in my case, though you might be running nginx or something else
  5. run the cert tool in automated form:
    1. agree to terms of service
    2. keep current cert if it doesn’t need to be updated
    3. key size of 2048 bits
    4. run the standalone webserver to verify “ownership” of the domain
    5. generate just the cert
    6. administrative email (optional, but “encouraged”)
    7. domain(s) to issue cert for (must be individually identified with successive -d flags; LE does not support wildcard certs)
  6. restart httpd

I set mine to run @weekly in cron@monthly is likely good enough, but since it’s “free” to run, running slightly more than is necessary seems good to me. Plus, if you’re getting SSL certs for many domains all being served from the same server, they may have different expiration dates, so running more often is better.

My crontab entry for renewing certs:

@weekly /root/

let’s encrypt centos 6 – truly free ssl

There’s been quite a bit of excitement surrounding Let’s Encrypt recently – a truly 100% free SSL issuer.

Last week I helped a friend of mine get his first Let’s Encrypt certificate generated and configured for his website. One of the things I found incredibly frustrating is that Let’s Encrypt does not have a package for Red Hat/CentOS/Fedora! Ignoring such a massive installed base seems monumentally dumb – so I hope that they correct it soon. Until they do, however, here’s a tutorial that should cover the gotchas for getting Let’s Encrypt to work on a CentOS 6 server with Apache 2.

The documentation (as of 06 Jan 2015) on the Let’s Encrypt website is in error in a few places (or, at least, not as correct as is could/should be). One big thing to note, for example, is that it says Python 2.6 is supported (the current release for RHEL/CentOS 6). If you run the certificate generator without the --debug flag, though, it will error-out saying Python 2.6 is not supported.

While I used an existing CentOS 6 server, I’ll start this tutorial as I have many others – by telling you to go get a CentOS 6 server from Digital Ocean or Chunk Host.


Login as root (or a sudo-privileged account – but root is easier), and install Apache, Python, and SSLyum install httpd python mod_ssl.

Also enable the EPEL repository: yum install epel-repository (available from the CentOS Extras repository. I’m going to assume you are familiar with configuring Apache, and will only provide the relevant snippets from ssl.conf herein.

Now that the basics are done, let’s move to Let’s Encrypt. I ran the tool in interactive mode (which is going to require ncurses to be available – it’s probably already installed on your system) – but you’ll want to add a crontab entry since Let’s Encrypt certs expire after 90 days, so I’ll compact the interactive session into a single command-line call at the end, which you’ll need to “know” how to do, since the --help argument doesn’t do anything yet (that I could find).

Initial Certificate Creation

First, grab the latest Let’s Encrypt from GitHub:
git clone && cd letsencrypt

Stop Apache: service httpd stop. Let’s Encrypt is going to try to bind to ports 80 and 443 to ensure you have control the domain.

Now run the letsencrypt-auto tool – in debug mode so it’ll work with Python 2.6: ./letsencrypt-auto --debug certonly.

Use certonly because the plugins to automate installing for Apache and Nginx don’t work on CentOS yet.

Enter your domain name(s) for which you want to issue a certificate. If you accept incoming connections to www.domain.tld and domain.tld, be sure to put both in the list (likewise, if you have, say, blog.domain.tld that you want included).

Enter an administrative email address.

When the tool finishes, it’ll put symlinks in /etc/letsencrypt/live/domain.tld, with the “actual” certs in /etc/letsencrypt/archive/domain.tld. We’re going to reference the symlinks in /etc/letsencrypt/live/domain.tld next.

Edit /etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.conf (I prefer emacs – but use whatever you prefer), and add the following lines in your VirtualHost directive:
SSLCertificateFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/domain.tld/fullchain.pem
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/domain.tld/privkey.pem
SSLCACertificateFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/domain.tld/cert.pem

Restart Apacheservice httpd start.

Try hitting https://domain.tld in your web browser – and you should be golden!

Automating Renewal

Create a small shell script called somewhere you’ll remember where it is – like /root:
service httpd stop
# add additional '-d' entries for more subdomains
/path/to/letsencrypt/letsencrypt-auto --debug --keep --agree-tos --rsa-key-size 2048 certonly -m ssladmin@domain.tld -d domain.tld -d www.domain.tld
service httpd start

For your crontab entry, do the following to setup monthly cert renewal:
@monthly /path/to/

merging centos iso images

Thanks to @Anon on Unix.SE for the pointer on how to do this. And to @Andy‘s comment on @mmckinst‘s answer for the warning about additional packages you may need.

As my three readers know, I run a CentOS mirror. One of the idiosyncrasies of CentOS, like its upstream RHEL, is that DVD ISOs aren’t always just one image – for example, the 6.6 x64 image comes on two ISOs. I suppose this has something to do with the “normal” or “simple” capacity of a DVD disc, but it’s annoying.

Enter the script (original found here) from Chris Kloiber & Phil Schaffner.

The process I used to combine these two ISOs into one is as follows:
yum install isomd5sum createrepo mkisofs /full/path/to/original/isos /full/path/to/destination.iso

For posterity, and in case the CentOS wiki dies, below is the script:


# by Chris Kloiber 
# Mods under CentOS by Phil Schaffner 

# A quick hack that will create a bootable DVD iso of a Red Hat Linux
# Distribution. Feed it either a directory containing the downloaded
# iso files of a distribution, or point it at a directory containing
# the "RedHat", "isolinux", and "images" directories.

# This version only works with "isolinux" based Red Hat Linux versions.

# Lots of disk space required to work, 3X the distribution size at least.

# GPL version 2 applies. No warranties, yadda, yadda. Have fun.

# Modified to add sanity checks and fix CentOS4 syntax errors

#   Add checks for available disk space on devices holding output and
#       temp files.
#   Add optional 3rd parameter to specify location of temp directory.
#   Create .discinfo if not present.

$((test -e /etc/fedora-release && rpm -qf /etc/fedora-release --qf "FC%{VERSION}") \
|| (test -e /etc/redhat-release && rpm -qf /etc/redhat-release --qf "EL%{VERSION}") \
|| echo OS_unknown)

case "$OS_VER" in
        if [ ! -f $IMPLANT ]; then
            echo "Error: $IMPLANT Not Found!"
            echo "Please install anaconda-runtime and try again."
            exit 1
        if [ ! -f $IMPLANT ]; then
            echo "Error: $IMPLANT Not Found!"
            echo "Please install isomd5sum and try again."
            exit 1
        echo "Unknown OS."
        exit 1
        echo "Fix this script for $OS_VER"
        exit 1

if [ $# -lt 2 ]; then
        echo "Usage: `basename $0` source /destination/DVD.iso"
        echo ""
        echo "        The 'source' can be either a directory containing a single"
        echo "        set of isos, or an exploded tree like an ftp site."
        exit 1

DVD_DIR=`dirname $2`
DVD_FILE=`basename $2`

echo "DVD directory is $DVD_DIR"
echo "ISO file is $DVD_FILE"

if [ "$DVD_DIR" = "." ]; then
    echo "Destinaton Directory $DVD_DIR does not exist"
    exit 1
    if [ ! -d "/$DVD_DIR" ]; then
        echo "Destinaton Directory $DVD_DIR must be an absolute path"
        exit 1
        if [ "$DVD_FILE" = "" ] || [ -d "$DVD_DIR/$DVD_FILE" ]; then
            echo "Null ISO file name."
            exit 1

which mkisofs >&/dev/null
if [ "$?" != 0 ]; then
    echo "mkisofs Not Found"
    echo "yum install mkisofs"

which createrepo >&/dev/null
if [ "$?" != 0 ]; then
    echo "createrepo Not Found"
    echo "yum install createrepo"

if [ -f $2 ]; then
    echo "DVD ISO destination $2 already exists. Remove first to recreate."
    exit 1

# Make sure there is enough free space to hold the DVD image on the filesystem
# where the home directory resides, otherwise change ~/mkrhdvd to point to
# a filesystem with sufficient free space.

cleanup() {
    [ ${LOOP:=/tmp/loop} = "/" ] && echo "LOOP mount point = \/, dying!" && exit
    [ -d $LOOP ] && rm -rf $LOOP 
    [ ${DVD:=~/mkrhdvd} = "/" ] && echo "DVD data location is \/, dying!" && exit
    [ -d $DVD ] && rm -rf $DVD 

mkdir -p $LOOP
mkdir -p $DVD

ls $1/*.iso &>/dev/null
if [ "$?" = 0 ]; then

    echo "Found ISO CD images..."

    CDS=`expr 0`

    [ -w / ] || {   # Very portable, but perhaps not perfect, test for superuser.
        echo "Only 'root' may use this script for loopback mounts" 1>&2
        exit 1

    for f in `ls $1/*.iso`; do
        mount -o loop $f $LOOP
        cp -av $LOOP/* $DVD
        if [ -f $LOOP/.discinfo ]; then
            cp -av $LOOP/.discinfo $DVD
            CDS=`expr $CDS + 1`
            if [ $CDS != 1 ] ; then
                DISKS=`echo ${DISKS},${CDS}`
        umount $LOOP
    if [ -f $1/isolinux/isolinux.bin ]; then

        echo "Found FTP-like tree..."

        if [ -e $1/.discinfo ]; then
            cp -av $1/.discinfo $DVD
# How does one construct a legal .discinfo file if none is found?
            echo "Error: No .discinfo file found in $1"
            exit 1
        cp -av $1/* $DVD
        echo "Error: No CD images nor FTP-like tree found in $1"
        exit 1

if [ -e $DVD/.discinfo ]; then
    awk '{ if ( NR == 4 ) { print disks } else { print ; } }' disks="ALL" $DVD/.discinfo > $DVD/
    mv $DVD/ $DVD/.discinfo
    echo  "Error: No .discinfo file found in $DVD"
    exit 1

rm -rf $DVD/isolinux/
find $DVD -name TRANS.TBL | xargs rm -f

cd $DVD
createrepo -g repodata/comps.xml ./
mkisofs -J -R -v -T -o $2 -b isolinux/isolinux.bin -c isolinux/ -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 8 -boot-info-table $DVD
if [ "$?" = 0 ]; then

    echo ""
    echo "Image complete, create md5sum..."

#  $IMPLANT --force $2
# Don't like forced mediacheck? Try this instead.
    $IMPLANT --supported-iso --force $2

    echo "Start cleanup..."


    echo ""
    echo "Process Complete!"
    echo "Wrote DVD ISO image to $DVD_DIR/$DVD_FILE"
    echo ""
    echo "ERROR: Image creation failed, start cleanup..."


    echo ""
    echo "Failed to create ISO image $DVD_DIR/$DVD_FILE"
    echo ""